Thursday, July 31, 2008

Brass Part Worldwide

brass lpg parts brass lpg components brass lpg products brass auto components europe brass auto products worldwide brass auto parts for industries

Brass = Cu3Zn2


Brass is not an officially recognized mineral as yet, although it has been proposed. It is not the man-made brass that is under consideration, but specimens of naturally occurring crystals of a copper nickel alloy with a formula similar to what we know as brass. These specimens are also not common, but are extremely rare and have only been found in a couple of localities in Siberia, Russia. Brass could be considered an official mineral if the naturally occurring crystals prove to have a unique structure and chemistry from other copper nickel alloys. That may prove difficult or impossible and if so, brass will then be discounted as a mineral.

Brass is classified as an element dispite the fact, that in chemical reality, it is a compound. Minerals like brass are alloys with metallic bonds that are very similar to the more pure metallic elements and are thus classified as elements.


    * Color is yellow to brassy yellow.
    * Luster is metallic.
    * Transparency: Specimens are opaque.
    * Crystal System is isometric.
    * Crystal Habits are limited to tiny grains.
    * Cleavage is absent.
    * Specific Gravity is 8.4 - 8.7 (man-made brass)
    * Streak is brassy brown.
    * Notable Occurrences are limited to two localities in Siberia, Russia; Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka and Vol'sk-Vym Ridge, Middle Timan.
    * Best Field Indicator is color, locality, density and rarity.

Divyang A. Pandya

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc has unique and beneficial properties a wide range of engineering

Brass Components
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc that has unique and beneficial properties for a wide range of engineering and building applications.

Brass is often the first-choice material for electrical, precision, and general engineering equipment. It is usually specified for its strength, ductility, hardness, conductivity, machinability, wear resistance, color, and corrosion resistance. Its high ratings for machinability sets the standards by which other materials are judged. The addition of small amounts of lead further improves machinability.

The availability of brasses in precise shapes such as extrusions, hot stampings, drawn tubes, and die castings eliminates much of the machining costs required to produce finished components.

There are over 40 standard compositions for brass, with copper contents ranging from 58% to 95%. Small additions of other alloying elements are used to modify the properties of brass to meet specific applications.

Brass is the preferred material in many engineering and building applications for the following reasons:

- Brasses often offer better and longer service performance than other materials.

- Brasses have excellent resistance to corrosion. Outdoor exposure results in a thin protective green patina that is a visually attractive feature in buildings and other structures.

- Brasses have superior electrical and thermal conductivities to ferrous alloys, nickel alloys, and titanium. Their high conductivity combined with corrosion resistance makes them ideal for electrical equipment.

- The presence of lead in brass has a lubricating effect that provides low friction and low wear properties. This improves the functioning of clocks, gears, pinions, and plates. The addition of silicon in brass is ideal for resisting wear in heavy duty bearings.

- Since brasses do not spark when struck, they are common materials in hazardous environments.

- Brasses are readily joined to other copper alloys or to other metals by most commercial joining processes, such as riveting, soft soldering, silver brazing, and friction welding.

- Brasses exhibit excellent cryogenic properties.

- Brasses are ideal substrates for electroplating and painting.

- Brasses are highly recyclable. There is substantial demand for scrap , which is eventually recycled into refined brass and copper products.

- Brasses are frequently the cheapest material to select.

- Brasses can be easily cast to shape.

Copper and its alloys are present wherever industrial machinery and equipment are found

Copper and its alloys are present wherever industrial machinery and equipment are found. Due to their durability, machinability, and ease of casting with high precision and tolerance, copper alloys are ideal for making products such as gears, bearings, and turbine blades.

Copper's superior heat transfer capabilities and ability to withstand extreme environments makes it an ideal choice for heat exchange equipment, pressure vessels, and vats.

In situations where explosions are feared, copper-alloyed safety tools, such as hammers, axes, pliers, and screwdrivers are typically specified. These tools are non sparking, high strength, non magnetic, and corrosion resistant.

The corrosion-resistant properties of copper and its alloys (e.g., brass, bronze, copper-nickel) make them especially suitable for use in demanding environments. Oil platforms, coastal power stations, and vessels, tanks, and piping exposed to seawater all depend on copper's corrosion resistance for protection.

Because of the versatility and excellent corrosion resistance of copper , they are specified in many engineering applications, including valves, pumps, heat exchangers, radiators, valve guides, hydraulic tubing, bolting, mining wagon brakes, and plastic molding inserts, dies.

Sunday, July 27, 2008


Neutral links

Manufactured in Natural / Tinned Brass, allows earth conductor termination, or live conductor termination with a suitable fully insulated housing.

Brass Electrical Components

Whatever your requirements for Quality Precision Brass Components, Parts, Fittings. We offer the most reliable and Cost- effective solution "Deep Recycling Industries"

We are manufacturing all Kinds of Brass Electrical Components, Parts, and Fittings Like Electrical Plug Pins, Sockets Pins, Brass Neutral Links, Brass Terminal Block, Brass Connectors, Brass Earthing Accessories like Brass Dc Clip, Brass Earthing Clamp, Brass Couplers, Brass Earth Roads.We are manufacturing all Kinds of Brass Fasteners like Brass Screws, Washers, Nuts, Bolts, Pillars Screws. Any kind of Brass Fasteners can be developed and supplied exactly as per customer's Requirement & Specification

Any kind of Brass Electrical Components can be developed and supplied exactly as per customer's Requirement & Specifications.

Thursday, July 24, 2008

Brass Exporter

A world class supplier of brass turned parts (automatic screw machine components) and sheet metal parts Manufacturers and Exporter of Brass Hardware, Building Hardware, Door Hardware, Brass Tower Bolts, hinges, Haldraff, Glass Bracket, Handles, Brass Gate Hook, window stay, Brass zula in India

Deep Recycling Industries

Brass Auto Parts

Brass live is having a large number of automatic and semi-automatic machine, installed to manufacture a diverse and difficult range of brass auto parts. we offer various types of brass auto parts and battery terminals, forged battery terminal.

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

brass copper fittings



Monday, July 21, 2008

brass industries

We welcome you to the world of BRASS INDUSTRIES. A company was formed in 1964, with a vision to produce Precision Turned Components
Deep recycling industries



Copper Alloy Ingots

Copper Alloy Ingots :

India's largest exporter of copper alloy ingots like gun metal, lead bronze, phosphor bronze, aluminum bronze, manganese bronze, silicon bronze, brass, high tensile brass, etc. for foundry applications to USA, Germany, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Japan & Taiwan

Our Products  Brass  Gun Metal  Phosphor Bronze  High Tensile Brass Aluminum Bronze  Manganese Bronze Silicon Bronze Lead Bronze  Bronze

Applications : Valves, cocks, plumbing fittings, marine fittings, pipe fittings, gas fittings, door & furniture fittings, hardware,  electrical trade & ornamental castings, brush holders, switchgear brush holders, pump bodies, bolts, nuts, end plates for heat exchange equipment, small machine parts, flanges, imitation jewellery

Gun Metal
Applications : Pressure tight bearings, bushes, pumps, pump bodies, pump fittings, oil pumps, valves, valve bodies, steam valves, valve guides at normal temperatures under corrosive marine conditions, actuating nuts, hardware fittings, plumbing fixtures, elbows, pipes, taps, cocks, hydraulic fittings where pressure tight fittings are important, railway bearings, engine components, tractor parts, pressure components

Phosphor Bronze
Applications : Bearings for aero engines, diesel engines, electrical generators and rolling mills, gears, worn wheels, pressure vessels, pump body castings, impellers for chemical plants, bushes for lighter duties

High Tensile Brass
Applications : Marine castings & fittings, hydraulic equipment, locomotive axle boxes, pump castings, heavy rolling mill housing nuts, spur & gear, wheels which are heavily loaded and slow moving, components with high stress at normal temperatures

Aluminum Bronze
Applications : In marine engineering, and in petroleum, oil and chemical industries

Lead Bronze
Applications : Mining machinery bearings, corrosive marine conditions bearing, unlined bearings under poor lubrication conditions, mill bearings, railway bearings oil industry bearings, aero engine bearings for use at higher temperatures than white metal bushes for chill cast, centrifugally cast & continuously cast, linings for steel backed motors

Applications : Bearings, castings for boiler mountings, water pressure fittings, grease & oil lubricated bearings (lined and unlined), motion bushes, bushes for heavy loads.

Sunday, July 20, 2008

High Tensile Brass CZ114 / CW721R

Brasses are alloys of Copper and Zinc.
They may also contain small amounts
of other alloying elements to impart
advantageous properties. Brasses have
high corrosion resistance and high
tensile strength. They are also suited
to fabrication by hot forging. Free
machining grades of brass set the
standard for machining by which other
metals are compared.
Brasses are divided into two classes.
The alpha alloys, with less than 37%
Zinc, and the alpha/beta alloys with
37-45% zinc. Alpha alloys are ductile
and can be cold worked. Alpha/beta or
duplex alloys have limited cold ductility
and are harder and stronger. CZ114 /
CW721R is a duplex or alpha/beta
Brass alloy CZ114 / CW721R is a
versatile high strength, hot workable,
machinable engineering alloy.

Copper alloy C106/CW024A

It is believed that copper has been
mined for over 5000 years. It can be
found in elemental form and in the
minerals cuprite, malachite, azurite,
chalcopyrite and bornite. Copper is also
often produced as a by-product of
silver production.
Next to silver, copper is the next best
conductor. It is a yellowish red metal
that polishes to a bright metallic lustre.
It is tough, ductile and malleable.
Copper has a disagreeable taste and a
peculiar smell.
Copper is corrosion-resistant to most
atmospheres including marine and
industrial environments. It is corroded
by oxidising acids, halogens, sulphides
and ammonia based solutions.
C106 / CW024A is phosphorous deoxidised
non-arsenical copper that is
99.9% pure.

Copper C101/CW004A

It is believed that copper has been
mined for over 5000 years. It can be
found in elemental form and in the
minerals cuprite, malachite, azurite,
chalcopyrite and bornite. Copper is also
often found as a by-product of silver
Next to silver, copper is the next best
conductor of electricity. It is a
yellowish red metal that can be
polished to a bright metallic lustre. It
is tough, ductile and malleable. Copper
has a disagreeable taste and a peculiar
Copper is resistant to corrosion in most
atmospheres including marine and
industrial environments. It is corroded
by oxidising acids, halogens, sulphides
and ammonia based solutions.
C101 / CW004A is the designation for
the 99.9% pure copper used in a range
of engineering applications.
C101 / CW004A is also known as HC or
high conductivity copper. It has a
nominal conductivity of 100% IACS
(International Annealed Copper
Standard). It also has high thermal
conductivity. This is therefore the
material of choice for use in conductors
and electrical components but not
when the service environment is a
reducing atmosphere.
High ductility and impact strength also
serve to make C101 / CW004A an
extremely useful material.
C101 / CW004A is also the base
material from which common brasses
and bronzes are produced.

Anode on Copper Plating

Copper anodes in sulfate fluoborate baths usually become coated with
films containing finely divided copper and copper oxide particles. A
copper oxide film is believed to cause inter-granular corrosion, which
promotes disintegration of surface layer into the copper particles.
Some, however, have attributed the films to copper particles formed by
the disproportionation of copper (I) ion to copper (II) ion and metal.
The films on the anodes in the sulfate bath also contain insoluble
impurities such as arsenic, selenium, tellurium, lead, and silver.

Anode film particles often become detached from the anodes. Air
agitation promotes the detachment, causing some particles to be
dissolved by the free acid. If the work is racked so that cathode
shelves lie in a horizontal plane, particles will settle out on these
areas and roughen the plate. In such cases, the anode sludge can
sometimes be decreased and the deposits made smoother by raising the
bath temperature or increasing the acid concentration. In on series of
test, less copper was found in anode films formed in flouborate baths
than in those form sulfate baths.

Fine copper particles can be prevented from reaching the cathode by
bagging anodes with woven Dynel or polypropylene. To allow good mixing
of the solution adjacent to the anodes placed edgewise to the

Rolled and cast bars and electrolytic copper sheets have been employed
as anodes in sulfate and fluoborate baths. Anode sludge is decreased
by using oxygen-free, high conductivity copper. On the other hand, the
tenacity of the anode film is improved and the number of particles
that become detached from anodes surface in air agitated baths is
decreased by adding 0.02 to 0.04% phosphorous to cast copper. The
films on phosphorized copper anodes are responsible for the slight
polarization of about 0.5 V. Boiled copper anodes containing at least
0.004% phosphorous are customarily recommended by the vendors of
brighteners for plating bright copper in copper sulfate solutions.
Chunks of phosporized copper are frequently used in titanium anode

Tuesday, July 15, 2008

Copper Painting

In most instances Copper and Copper alloys
do not require painting. The inherent
properties of Copper resist corrosion and
biofouling. Painting of Copper is
occasionally done for aesthetic reasons. It
is also done to reduce the incidence of
metal to metal contact of bimetallic couples
where galvanic corrosion might be a
Before painting Copper, the surface of the
material should be roughened by grit or
sand blasting. Other specific procedures will
depend upon the type of paint being used.
Please consult the paint manufacturer for

Copper Recycling

Copper alloys are highly suited to recycling.
Around 40% of the annual consumption of
Copper alloys comes from recycled copper
materials. Both process scrap and the
component, at the end of its working life,
can be readily recycled.

Cleaning and Polishing Copper

The best way to keep Copper clean is to not
allow it to get dirty in the first place.
Where possible, decorative items should be
kept clean and free of dust. Many
decorative copper items are coated with
lacquer to protect the finish. Other than
dusting, for these items occasional washing
with luke warm, soapy water may be
required. They should never be polished as
this may remove the protective lacquer.
To remove tarnish from Copper cookware,
simply rub with lemon halves dipped in salt.
Tarnish can be removed from Copper in
industrial applications using commercial
copper polishes. These polishes should be
applied following the manufacturers
If a brushed finish is required on Copper or
copper alloys, stainless steel brushes must
be used to eliminate cross contamination.

Copper Finishing

Copper components can be finished in a
vast variety of ways. The finish used for
any given Copper component is dependent
upon function and/or aesthetics. Copper
naturally forms a protective oxide layer on
exposure to the elements. This layer is
normally blue – green and may or may not
be desirable.
The blue – green patina develops over time
but its development can be enhanced and
accelerated by the use of commercially
available oxidising agents.
If the tarnished patina of Copper is not
desirable, the material can be protected
using a lacquer coating. An acrylic coating
with benzotriazole as an additive will last
several years under most outdoor,
abrasion-free conditions.

Copper Descaling

The surface oxide films that form on Copper
alloys can prove to be quite tenacious.
Often these films need to be removed
before some fabrication processes can be
Very fine abrasive belts or discs can be
used to remove oxides and discolouration
adjacent to welds.
Pickling might be necessary by using a hot
5-10% sulphuric acid solution containing
0.35g/l potassium dichromate. Before
commencing pickling, oxides can be broken
up by a grit blast. Components that have
been pickled should be rinsed thoroughly in
hot, fresh water and finally dried in hot air.

Copper Casting

Copper and many Copper alloys are ideally
suited to fabrication of components by
The most flexible casting technique utilises
sand moulds. Sand moulds can be used for
production runs from simple one-off items
to long casting runs. These items can also
range in size from a few grams to many
The other popular casting technique uses
iron moulds and is called die casting. Die
casting is suited to long casting runs.
Both die casting and sand casting can be
used for the low cost production complex
near net-shape components. This minimises
expensive post casting machining.
Bars, sections and hollows that require tight
dimensional control are often produced by
continuous casting.
Rings, discs and other symmetrical shapes
tend to be produced using centrifugal

Copper Machining

All Coppers and Copper alloys can be
machined accurately, cheaply, with a good
tolerance standard and good surface finish.
Some Copper alloys are specifically
formulated to have excellent machinability.
If machinability is the paramount
consideration for the material, the material
of choice is high speed machining brass.
The relative machinability of metals is
demonstrated by a percentage rating. This
rating system is based on the original free
machining brass (CZ121 / CW614N) which
has a rating of 100.

Copper Bolting and Riveting

Copper and all Copper alloys can be
successfully bolted or riveted. However
consideration must be given to the material
used in the bolts or rivets. As Copper is
often chosen for its corrosion resistance,
the material used in the bolts and rivets
should be made from the same or similar
material to that being joined.
For roofing applications, Copper nails are
preferred but brass or stainless steel can be
Mechanical joining like bolting and riveting
may induce localised areas of high stress,
which could induce failure in the
component. Replacing the mechanical joint
with adhesive bonding can eliminate this.
Adhesive bonding can also be used in
conjunction with mechanical bonding.

Copper Welding

Copper alloys are readily welded using all
common welding techniques including:
􀂋 Arc welding
􀂋 Gas-shielded arc welding
􀂋 Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding
􀂋 Metal inert gas (MIG) welding
􀂋 Plasma arc welding
􀂋 Pulsed-current MIG welding
􀂋 Electron Beam welding
􀂋 Laser welding
􀂋 Friction welding
􀂋 Ultrasonic welding

Copper brazing

With the exception of alloys containing
more than around 10 per cent Aluminium or
3 per cent Lead, brazing can be used to join
all Copper alloys.
Brazing is particularly popular for joining
Copper components used in building,
heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and
the manufacturing of electronic products

Copper Tube and Pipe Bending

Most Copper pipe/ tube can be readily bent
and two main methods are employed. The
first uses bending springs and the second, a
pipe bending machine.
The simplest tool for bending pipe is the
bending spring. Bending springs are
normally used for thinner walls where the
pipe can be bent by hand. Two types of
spring are used: internal and external. Both
types of spring serve the same function; to
prevent the wall of the pipe from collapsing
during bending.
External springs are used for smaller
diameter copper piping (6 to 10mm
external diameter). As the name suggests,
the spring is fitted over the tube during the
bending operation. Internal springs are
placed inside the pipe during bending.
Each pipe size requires its own specific size
of spring.
All bending machines are different but the
principal is the same.
The bending machine is fitted with a
bending roller and former matched to the
size of the pipe. The pipe is secured at one
end and the lever handle of the machine
moved to bend the pipe around the former.

Copper Soldering

Soldering can be divided into two methods:
􀂋 Soft soldering using alloys that melt
below 350°C
􀂋 Hard soldering using stronger, high
melting point alloys
In regard to soldering Copper alloys, hard
soldering is often referred to as Silver
Soft soldering normally uses Tin based
solders for joining Copper and brass when
high mechanical strength is not required.
The method is commonly used for joining
Copper in domes

Joining of Copper Components

Copper and Copper alloys are more readily
joined than most other materials used in
Although 90% of Copper based components
are assembled using conventional welding
and brazing techniques, they can be
successfully joined using every known
joining process.
When welding, soldering or brazing Copper
the joint must be clean and free of dirt,
grease or paint.

Copper Bar and Flat Bending

Copper and Copper alloy bar can be bent
using standard bending methods.
As a general rule, the minimum bending
radius for copper bar is equal to the
thickness of the bar.

Cutting Copper Sheet and Plate

The method employed for cutting Copper
sheet or plate largely depends on two
factors; the thickness of the material and
the amount of cutting required.
For thin gauge material where only a
minimal amount of cutting is to be done, tin
snips or hand shears may be adequate.
Thicker material can be cut using a
bandsaw or other mechanical saw fitted
with a bimetallic blade suited to the cutting
of Copper alloys. For large cutting runs or
for thick material it may be necessary to
utilise one of the common industrial cutting
methods like:
􀂋 Shearing
􀂋 Electrical discharge machining (EDM)
􀂋 Laser cutting
􀂋 Water jet cutting
􀂋 Plasma cutting
􀂋 Slitting
􀂋 Guillotining
􀂋 Abrasive disc cutting

Copper Pipe and Tube Cutting

When cutting Copper pipe, a fine toothed
hacksaw may be used quite successfully. To
ensure the cut is square to the pipe, a tube
cutter should be used.
When a pipe cutter is used, it is
recommended to grip the Copper tubing
with a pipe vice or a similar holding device.
To hold material for cutting with a hacksaw
use a mitre box or a jig consisting of a
piece of wood containing a notch to hold
the tube or pipe in place.
After cutting any burrs need to be removed
from the inside and outside of the tube. For
this, use a half round file. Pipe cutters tend
to cause more burrs than do hacksaws.

Copper Cutting

Most Copper alloys are relatively soft and
can be readily cut using common hand tools
and standard cutting methods.
While the relative softness of Copper makes
it easy to cut, it is important to protect the
component from unwanted damage during
cutting. This damage may include, but not
be limited to, bending, denting or

Handling and Storage

The procedures for the handling and
storage of Copper and Copper alloys are
very similar to those used for Aluminium
and stainless steel.
The most important factor is cleanliness.
Contaminated Copper can be the cause of
cracking or porosity during heat treatment
or welding. Corrosion resistance can also be
adversely affected. Tooling and work
surfaces should be dedicated to use with
Copper materials or thoroughly cleaned
before use. If this is rule is not adhered to,
cross contamination can occur.
Copper sheets should remain in their
packaging until required and should be kept
separated by protective material to avoid
abrasion between the sheets.
Plates and sheets should be stored
vertically in covered racks. All Copper
materials should never be walked upon.

Copper Ductility and Malleability

The ductility and malleability of Copper and
Copper alloys makes them ideally suited to
fabrication methods that involve severe
deformation such as:
􀂋 Tube forming
􀂋 Wire drawing
􀂋 Spinning
􀂋 Roll forming
􀂋 Deep drawing
These fabrication methods require
specialised, heavy equipment and skilled
operators. If fabrication by one of these
methods is required, more information
should be sought independently.

Copper fabrication

Copper and Copper alloys are amongst
the most versatile materials available
and are used for applications in every
type of industry. World consumption of
Copper now exceeds 18 million tonnes
per annum.
Copper is well known for it's
conductivity but it has other properties
that have been exploited in a wide
range of copper alloys. These alloys
have been developed for a wide variety
of applications and numerous
fabrication processes employed to
produce finished goods.
Fabrication techniques that copper
alloys are largely suited to include
machining, forming, stamping, joining,
polishing and plating.
The exceptional machinability of some
Copper alloys means that free
machining brass sets the standard of
machinability by which all other metals
are judged.

Sunday, July 13, 2008


Brasses contain Zinc as the principal
alloying element.
Other alloying elements may also be
present to impart advantageous properties.
These elements include Iron, Aluminium,
Nickel and Silicon.
Brasses are most commonly characterised
by their free machining grades by which
machining standards are set for all other
Brasses can also have high corrosion
resistance and high tensile strength. Some
brasses are also suited to hot forging.

Bronze Families

The wrought bronze alloy families are:
􀂋 Copper-Tin-Phosphorus alloys (Phosphor
􀂋 Copper-Tin-Lead-Phosphorus alloys
(Leaded Phosphor Bronzes)
􀂋 Copper-Aluminium alloys (Aluminium
􀂋 Copper-Silicon alloys (Silicon Bronzes)
The cast bronze alloy families are:
􀂋 Copper-Tin alloys (Tin Bronzes)
􀂋 Copper-Tin-Lead alloys (Leaded and
high leaded Tin Bronzes)
􀂋 Copper-Tin-Nickel alloys (nickel-tin
􀂋 Copper-Aluminium alloys (Aluminium

Brass Families

There are three main families of wrought
alloy brasses:
􀂋 Copper-Zinc alloys
􀂋 Copper-Zinc-Lead alloys (Leaded
􀂋 Copper-Zinc-Tin alloys (Tin brasses)
Cast brass alloys can be broken into four
main families:
􀂋 Copper-Tin-Zinc alloys
􀂋 Manganese Bronze (high strength
brasses) and Leaded Manganese Bronze
(high tensile brasses)
􀂋 Copper-Zinc-Silicon alloys (Silicon
brasses and bronzes)
􀂋 Cast Copper-Bismuth and Copper-
Bismuth-Selenium alloys.

Copper Alloy Families

Within the wrought and cast categories for
Copper alloys, the compositions can be
divided into the following main families:
􀂋 Pure Coppers
􀂋 High Copper Alloys
􀂋 Brasses
􀂋 Bronzes

Copper Electrical Conductivity

The electrical conductivity of copper is
second only to silver. The conductivity of
copper is 97% that of silver. Due to its
much lower cost and greater abundance,
copper has traditionally been the standard
material used for electricity transmission
However, weight considerations mean that
a large proportion of overhead high voltage
power lines now use aluminium rather than
copper. By weight, the conductivity of
aluminium is around twice that of copper.
The aluminium alloys used do have a low
strength and need to be reinforced with a
galvanised or aluminium coated high tensile
steel wire in each strand.
Although additions of other elements will
improve properties like strength, there will
be some loss in electrical conductivity. As
an example a 1% addition of cadmium can
increase strength by 50%. However, this
will result in a corresponding decrease in
electrical conductivity of 15%.

Surface Oxidation of Copper

Most Copper alloys will develop a bluegreen
patina when exposed to the elements
outdoors. Typical of this is the colour of the
Copper Statue of Liberty in New York. Some
Copper alloys will darken after prolonged
exposure to the elements and take on a
brown to black colour.
Lacquer coatings can be used to protect the
surface and retain the original alloy colour.
An acrylic coating with benzotriazole as an
additive will last several years under most
outdoor, abrasion-free conditions.

Copper as Corrosion Resistance

All Copper alloys resist corrosion by fresh
water and steam. In most rural, marine and
industrial atmospheres Copper alloys also
resistant to corrosion. Copper is resistant to
saline solutions, soils, non-oxidising
minerals, organic acids and caustic
solutions. Moist ammonia, halogens,
sulphides, solutions containing ammonia
ions and oxidising acids, like nitric acid, will
attack Copper. Copper alloys also have poor
resistance to inorganic acids.
The corrosion resistance of Copper alloys
comes from the formation of adherent films
on the material surface. These films are
relatively impervious to corrosion therefore
protecting the base metal from further
Copper Nickel alloys, Aluminium Brass, and
Aluminium Bronzes demonstrate superior
resistance to saltwater corrosion.

Key properties of Copper Alloys

Copper is a tough, ductile and malleable
material. These properties make copper
extremely suitable for tube forming, wire
drawing, spinning and deep drawing. The
other key properties exhibited by copper
and its alloys include:
􀂋 Excellent heat conductivity
􀂋 Excellent electrical conductivity
􀂋 Good corrosion resistance
􀂋 Good biofouling resistance
􀂋 Good machinability
􀂋 Retention of mechanical and electrical
properties at cryogenic temperatures
􀂋 Non-magnetic

Other Properties :
􀂋 Copper and Copper alloys have a
peculiar smell and disagreeable taste.
These may be transferred by contact
and therefore Copper should be kept
clear of foodstuffs.
􀂋 Most commercially used metals have a
metallic white colour. Copper is a
yellowish red.

Copper Structure

Copper has a face centred cubic crystal
structure. It is yellowish red in physical
appearance and when polished develops a
bright metallic lustre.

Copper Applications

Copper and copper alloys can be used in an
extraordinary range of applications. Some
of these applications include:
􀂋 Power transmission lines
􀂋 Architectural applications
􀂋 Cooking utensils
􀂋 Spark plugs
􀂋 Electrical wiring, cables and busbars
􀂋 High conductivity wires
􀂋 Electrodes
􀂋 Heat exchangers
􀂋 Refrigeration tubing
􀂋 Plumbing
􀂋 Water-cooled copper crucibles

Copper Introduction

Copper is the oldest metal used by
man. It's use dates back to prehistoric
times. Copper has been mined for more
than 10,000 years with a Copper
pendant found in current day Iraq
being dated to 8700BC. By 5000BC
Copper was being smelted from simple
Copper Oxides.

Copper is found as native metal and in
minerals cuprite, malachite, azurite,
chalcopyrite and bornite. It is also
often a by-product of silver production.
Sulphides, oxides and carbonates are
the most important ores.

Copper and Copper alloys are some of
the most versatile engineering
materials available. The combination of
physical properties such as strength,
conductivity, corrosion resistance,
machinability and ductility make
copper suitable for a wide range of
applications. These properties can be
further enhanced with variations in
composition and manufacturing

The largest end use for Copper is in the
building industry. Within the building
industry the use of copper based
materials is broad. Construction
industry related applications for copper
􀂋 Roofing
􀂋 Cladding
􀂋 Rainwater systems
􀂋 Heating systems
􀂋 Water pipes and fittings
􀂋 Oil and gas lines
􀂋 Electrical wiring

The building industry is the largest
single consumer of copper alloys. The
following list is a breakdown of copper
consumption by industry on an annual
􀂋 Building industry – 47%
􀂋 Electronic products - 23%
􀂋 Transportation - 10%
􀂋 Consumer products - 11%
􀂋 Industrial machinery - 9%

There are around 370 commercial
compositions for copper alloys. The
most common grade tends to be C106/
CW024A - the standard water tube
grade of copper.
World consumption of copper and
copper alloys now exceeds 18 million
tonnes per annum.

Copper Melting Point

The melting point for pure copper is

Copper Yeild Strength

The yield point for Copper alloys is not sharply defined. As a result
it tends to be reported as either a 0.5% extension under load or as
0.2% offset.

Most commonly the 0.5% extension yield strength of annealed material
registers as approximately one-third the tensile strength. Hardening
by cold working means
the material becomes less ductile, and yield strength approaches the
tensile strength.

Brass Inserts

Brass inserts are designed with various knurl to provide a high
torque-pull out resistance for threaded assembly in plastic. They also
carry a strong metal thread to strengthen the plastic components for

Method of installation: Ultra-sonic, thermal & moulded-in.
Typical application: Telecommunication, instrument, electronics &
other plastic cases assembly.

1. Brass inserts
Further the round inserts, hexagonal inserts and square inserts are
also available. The inserts are available with diamond, straight or
unidirectional knurling.

2. Brass inserts - customise
Any kind of special brass insert can be developed and supplied exactly
as per customer specifications. Knurling inserts (round inserts /
hexagonal inserts / square inserts).

3. Brass insert - thread
ISO metric (MM threads).
BA threads.
BSW threads (inches).
UNC, UNF threads.
Any threads as per custom design.

4. Brass inserts knurling available - Diamond / straight / unidirectional.

Saturday, July 12, 2008

What are Monel valves?

Monel is a nickel-copper and zinc alloy that was patented in 1906. Its considered a 'natural alloy' since it can be produced by refining ore containing nickel and copper in the ratio it is found in the natural nickel-copper ore.

Monel is more expensive than stainless steel and highly resistant to corrosion. Its popular in marine applications, eyeglass frames, and musical instruments.

There's an excellent story of monel entitled 'A Century of Monel Metal: 1906-2006′, which contains this account:

    On January 30, 1906, U.S. patent 811,239 was issued to Ambrose Monell, then president of the three-year old Inco, for "a new and useful improvement in the manufacture-of nickel-copper alloys." As is stated in the Monell patent, the process included smelting, "bessemerization," calcining, and oxide reduction.While Browne's plan to make German silver from the nickel/copper alloy was indeed possible, it was determined that the resulting alloy of about 70% nickel and 30% copper-the natural ratio of those elements in the matte ore-had some quite interesting properties as produced. The new alloy was silvery white, brighter than nickel, stronger than steel, and more resistant to corrosion in saltwater and sulfuric acid than bronze. In honor of the company's president, the product was named "Monel" metal.

Friday, July 11, 2008

Brass Electrical Parts

Since the neutral point of an electrical supply system is often connected to earth ground, ground and neutral are closely related. Under certain conditions, a conductor used to connect to a system neutral is also used for grounding (earthing) of equipment and structures. Current carried on a grounding conductor can result in objectionable or dangerous voltages appearing on equipment enclosures, so the installation of ground (earth) conductors and neutral conductors is carefully distinguished in electrical regulations. Where a neutral conductor is used also to connect equipment enclosures to earth, care must be taken that the neutral conductor never rises to a high voltage with respect to local ground.


Brass instruments are made of a lacquered or plated metal. Traditionally the instruments are normally made of brass, polished and then lacquered to prevent corrosion. Some higher quality and higher cost instruments use gold or silver plating to prevent corrosion. A few specialty instruments are made from wood.

Alternatives to brass include other alloys containing significant amounts of copper or silver. These alloys are biostatic due to the oligodynamic effect, and thus suppress growth of molds, fungi or bacteria. Brass instruments constructed from stainless steel or aluminum have good sound quality but are rapidly colonized by microorganisms and become unpleasant to play.

brass instruments

Natural brass instruments, where the player can only play notes in the instrument's harmonic series, for example the bugle. The trumpet was a natural brass instrument prior to about 1795, and the horn before about 1820. Natural instruments are still played for some ceremonial functions, as well as period performances.

type of brass

Brass types

    * Admiralty brass contains 30% zinc and 1% tin which inhibits dezincification in most environments.
    * Alpha brasses (Prince's metal), with less than 35% zinc, are malleable, can be worked cold, and are used in pressing, forging, or similar applications. They contain only one phase, with face-centered cubic crystal structure.
    * Alpha-beta brass (Muntz metal), also called duplex brass, is 35-45% zinc and is suited for hot working. It contains both α and β' phase; the β'-phase is body-centered cubic and is harder and stronger than α. Alpha-beta brasses are usually worked hot.
    * Aluminium brass contains aluminium, which improves its corrosion resistance. Used in Euro coins (Nordic gold).
    * Arsenical brass contains an addition of arsenic and frequently aluminium and is used for boiler fireboxes.
    * Beta brasses, with 45-50% zinc content, can only be worked hot, and are harder, stronger, and suitable for casting.
    * Cartridge brass is a 30% zinc brass with good cold working properties.
    * Common brass, or rivet brass, is a 37% zinc brass, cheap and standard for cold working.
    * DZR brass is Dezincification resistant Brass with a small percentage of Arsenic.
    * Gilding metal is the softest type of brass commonly available. An alloy of 95% copper and 5% zinc, gilding metal is typically used for ammunition components.
    * High brass, contains 65% copper and 35% zinc, has a high tensile strength and is used for springs, screws, rivets.
    * Leaded brass is an alpha-beta brass with an addition of lead. It has excellent machinability.
    * Low brass is a copper-zinc alloy containing 20% zinc with a light golden color, excellent ductility and is used for flexible metal hoses and metal bellows.
    * Naval brass, similar to admiralty brass, is a 40% zinc brass and 1% tin.
    * Red brass, while not technically brass, is an American term for CuZnSn alloy known as gunmetal.
    * White brass contains more than 50% zinc and is too brittle for general use.
    * Yellow brass is an American term for 33% zinc brass.